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Saturday, September 24, 2016

Massive Hemothorax

emDocs - Septeber 23, 2016 - Author: Simon E - Edited by: Koyfman A and Long B
"Summary
The emergency physician’s role in addressing a hemothorax is first to make the diagnosis utilizing CXR, US or CT. Hemothoraces should be managed with the placement of a chest tube to avoid the later complications of empyemas and fibrothorax. Massive hemothoraces warrant volume resuscitation, consultation with a trauma surgeon, and performance of a thoracotomy. Early identification and intervention is the key to limiting the morbitidy and mortality associated with hemothoraces.
Key Pearls
  • Hemothorax presentation is variable
  • Step 1: Diagnose the hemothorax with CXR vs. US definitively with CT
  • If the mechanism suggests hemothorax = rule out hemothorax despite CXR findings (CT if patient hemodynamically stable)
  • Hemothorax Treatment = Chest tube
  • Massive Hemothorax Treatment = Transfuse, consult, thoracotomy PRN
  • If the patient is persistently hypotensive despite control of pulmonary bleeding => look for other etiologies
  • Auto-transfusion of unprocessed shed hemothorax blood => additional research needed"